Gendered Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling Effect of US middle-level managers

Does the Glass Ceiling exist in today’s US organizations? Are women paid less and promoted fewer times than their male counterparts with like qualifications?

New book available on the “Glass Ceiling Effect” available for purchase from author Iris Billy PhD.

Available for purchase on Createspace and Amazon

ISBN-13: 978-1514695890
ISBN-10: 1514695898

Although women comprise 40% of all executive, management, and administrative positions, they remain confined mostly to the middle and lower ranks, and the senior levels of management are almost exclusively male domains. Studies of the top Fortune 500 companies showed that women were only 2.6% of corporate officers (the vice presidential level up). Of the Fortune Service 500, only 4.3% of corporate officers are women. In the 21st century do middle-level male and female managers believe that a glass ceiling exist in US corporations?


Women Increasing their Net-worth (WIN) entrepreneur event

On May 6, 2015 Iris Billy Consultancy Services participated in a great motivational/public speaking entrepreneurial event Women Increasing their Net-worth (WIN). The WIN event was founded and hosted by Camille Fanfair event planner extraordinaire (Focus on Divas). Sponsors were Dr. Jo-Ann Rolle Dean of School of Business Medgar Evers College Brooklyn NY, co-sponsors Dr. Roy Hastick President of Caribbean American Chamber of Commerce and Industry Inc.(CACCI) and Jorge Rosales Director Adult and Continuing Education (ACE) Medgar Evers College. Fellow presenters Glenda Cadogan VP Mauby Media Consulting Services (Media Coach) and Chanel Adams The Glam Maverick PR (Entrepreneur)

My Women Equalty Party Agenda II


What Is the Glass Ceiling for Women?

The phrase “glass ceiling” refers to an invisible barrier that prevents someone from achieving further success. It is most often heard in the context of women who cannot advance to the highest levels of power in the workplace. The glass ceiling is a way of describing whatever keeps women from achieving power and success equal to that of men.

The metaphor comments on an employee’s rise up the ranks of a hierarchical organization. Workers climb higher as they get promotions, pay raises, and other opportunities. In theory, nothing prevents women from rising as high as men. After the Women’s Liberation Movement and Civil Rights legislation of the 1960s, many people feel that discrimination is all in the past. However, in practice, there are still barriers.

A ceiling made of glass would be see-through. A woman can clearly see those above her who are more powerful. Instead of being able to achieve the same success, she is stopped by invisible forces that prevent her from rising further.

A Hard Barrier to Shatter

In the 1960s, overt sexism in the workplace was commonplace and frequently accepted. There were separate classified ads listings for men’s jobs and women’s jobs. Feminists recall letters of recommendation that commented on their looks. Although such behaviors seem long gone, a frustrating thing about the glass ceiling is that it is not overt. Instead of being a tangible barrier, which might be easier to identify, sexism in the glass ceiling workplace persists in more subtle ways.

What Are the Invisible Forces?

Although the Women’s Liberation Movement opened many doors, some women remain frustrated that they are the ones required to make sacrifices in order to balance family life with a career. Why, feminists ask, are men assumed to be able to have both family and career?

Even as more women entered the workforce during the 1960s and 1970s, feminists noted that traditionally male jobs were slow to open to women. Other practical glass ceiling matters include unequal pay rates and the idea that women lose out on involvement in an organization if they take maternity leave. Again, there is a contrast with men, who may or may not take time off for the birth of a child, and do not need to physically recover from the birth of their children. (more…)

My Women Equality Party Agenda


At the start of my PhD journey in 2011 I knew that my dissertation topic would be on The Glass Ceiling Effect. I believe that women in the US are not equal to male counterparts in pay and promotional advancements. As women we need to bring light to the issue and fight for EQUAL RIGHTS for women in our 21st century society.

What is the Glass Ceiling? – According to Lyness and Thompson (1997) a glass ceiling is a political term used to describe “the unseen and the unreachable” barrier that keeps women from rising to the upper echelons of the corporate ladder, regardless of their qualifications or achievements.

Cotter et al., (2001) defined four distinctive characteristics that must be met to conclude that a glass ceiling exists. A glass ceiling inequality represents:

1.”A gender or racial difference that is not explained by other job-relevant characteristics of the employee.”
2.”A gender or racial difference that is greater at higher levels of an outcome than at lower levels of an outcome.”
3.”A gender or racial inequality in the chances of advancement into higher levels, not merely the proportions of each gender or race currently at those higher levels.”
4.”A gender or racial inequality that increases over the course of a career.”

Initially, and sometimes still today, the metaphor was applied by feminists in reference to barriers in the careers of high achieving women. In a US Census Bureau Survey it was discovered that women made $0.77 to every dollar that a man made (with the same qualifications and experience). (more…)