Gendered Perceptions of the Glass Ceiling Effect of US middle-level managers

Does the Glass Ceiling exist in today’s US organizations? Are women paid less and promoted fewer times than their male counterparts with like qualifications?

New book available on the “Glass Ceiling Effect” available for purchase from author Iris Billy PhD.

Available for purchase on Createspace and Amazon

ISBN-13: 978-1514695890
ISBN-10: 1514695898

Although women comprise 40% of all executive, management, and administrative positions, they remain confined mostly to the middle and lower ranks, and the senior levels of management are almost exclusively male domains. Studies of the top Fortune 500 companies showed that women were only 2.6% of corporate officers (the vice presidential level up). Of the Fortune Service 500, only 4.3% of corporate officers are women. In the 21st century do middle-level male and female managers believe that a glass ceiling exist in US corporations?